Milk reduced fat fluid 2% milkfat with added nonfat milk...11001
Milk, reduced fat, fluid, 2% milkfat, with added nonfat milk solids, without added vitamin A density values, grouped by weight and shown as value of density, unit of density. . Milk, lactose free, reduced fat (2%) density values, grouped by weight and shown as value of density, unit of density. grain per gr/cm?. 15 gr/dm?. gr/ft?.
The principal constituents of milk are water, fat, proteins, lactose milk sugar and minerals salts. Milk also contains trace amounts of other substances such as pigments, enzymes, vitamins, phospholipids substances with fatlike propertiesand gases. The residue left when water and gases are removed is called the dry matter DM or total solids content of the milk. Milk is a very complex product.
In order to describe the various constituents of milk and how they are affected by the various stages of treatment in the dairy, it is necessary to resort to chemical terminology. This chapter on the chemistry of milk therefore begins with a brief review of some basic chemical concepts. The atom is the smallest building block of all matter in nature and cannot be divided chemically. A substance in which all the atoms are of the same kind is called an element.
More than elements are known today. Examples are oxygen, carbon, copper, hydrogen and iron. However, most naturally-occurring substances are composed of several different elements. Air, for example, is a mixture of oxygen, nitrogen, carbon dioxide and rare gases, while water is a chemical compound of the elements hydrogen and oxygen. The nucleus of the atom consists of protons and neutrons, Figure 2. The protons carry a positive unit charge, while the neutrons are electrically neutral.
The electrons, which orbit the nucleus, carry a negative charge equal and opposite to the unit charge of the protons. An atom contains equal numbers of protons and electrons with an equal number of positive and negative charges. The atom is therefore electrically neutral. An atom is very small, Figure 2. There are about as many atoms in a small copper coin as there are seconds in a thousand million million years!
Even so, an atom consists mostly of empty space. If we call the diameter of the nucleus one, the diameter of the whole atom is about 10 The nucleus is so small in relation to the atom that if it were enlarged to the size of a tennis ball, the outer electron shell would be metres from the centre.
An atom may lose or gain one or more electrons. Such an atom is no longer electrically neutral. It is called an ion. If the ion contains more electrons than protons it is negatively charged, but if it has lost one or more electrons it is positively charged. Positive and negative ions are always present at the same time; i.
Common salt consists of sodium Na and chlorine Cl ions and has the formula NaCl sodium chloride. Atoms of the same element or of different elements can combine into larger units, which are called molecules. The molecules can then form solid substances, e. How to make a homemade cast the molecule consists mainly of carbon Chydrogen H 2 and oxygen O 2 atoms, the compound formed is said to be organic, i.
An how to be a better base in cheerleading is lactic acid C 3 H 6 0 3. The formula means that the molecule is made up of three carbon atoms, six hydrogen atoms and three oxygen atoms. The number of atoms in a molecule can what is a field technician job description enormously.
There are molecules which consist of two linked atoms, and others composed of hundreds of atoms. The dry substance is suspended or dissolved in the water. Depending on the type of solids and size of particle table 2. Zoom Fig 2. Emulsion: a suspension of droplets of one liquid in another. The finely divided liquid is known as the dispersed phase and the other how to reduce cardiovascular disease the continuous phase.
Collodial solution: when matter exists in a state of division intermediate to true solution e. Substances such as salts destabilize colloidal systems by changing the water binding and thereby reducing protein solubility.
Factors such as heat cause unfolding of the whey proteins and increased interaction between the proteins and alcohol may dehydrate the particles. True solutions: Matter which, when mixed with water or other liquids, forms true solutions, is divided into:. When an acid e. When a base a metal oxide or hydroxide is added to water, it forms a basic or alkaline solution.
When the base dissolves it releases hydroxide OH — ions. The acidity of a solution is determined as the concentration of hydrogen ions. However, this varies a great deal from one solution to another.
The symbol pH is used to denote the hydrogen ion concentration. Mathematically, pH is defined as the negative logarithm to the base 10 of the hydrogen ion concentration expressed in molarity, i. When an acid is mixed with an alkali the hydrogen and hydroxide ions react with each other to form water.
If the acid and alkali are mixed in certain proportions, the resulting mixture will be neutral, with no excess of either hydrogen or hydroxide ions and with a pH of 7. This operation is called neutralization and the chemical formula:. Neutralization results in the formation of a salt. The salts of hydrochloric acid are called chlorides, and other salts are similarly named after the acids from which they are formed: citric acid forms citrates, nitric acid forms nitrates, and so on.
The particles present in a solution — ions, molecules or colloids — are influenced by forces which cause them to migrate diffuse from areas of high concentration to areas of low concentration.
The diffusion process continues until the whole solution is homogeneous, with the same concentration throughout. Sugar dissolving in a cup of coffee is an example of diffusion. The sugar dissolves quickly in the hot drink, and the sugar molecules diffuse until they are uniformly distributed in the drink.
The rate of diffusion depends on particle velocity, which in turn depends on the temperature, the size of the particles, and the difference in concentration between various parts of the solution.
Figure 2. The U-tube is divided into two compartments by a permeable membrane. The left leg is then filled with water and the right with a sugar solution whose molecules can pass through the membrane. After a while, through diffusion, the concentration is equalized on both sides of the membrane. Osmosis is the term used to describe the spontaneous flow of pure water into an aqueous solution, or from a less to a more concentrated solution, when separated by a suitable membrane.
The phenomenon of osmosis can be illustrated by the example shown in Figure 2. The U-tubes are divided in two compartments by a semi-permeable membrane. The left leg is filled with water and the right with a sugar how to convert ebook to pdf format whose molecules cannot pass through the membrane.
Now the water molecules will diffuse through the membrane into the sugar solution and dilute it to a lower concentration. This process is called osmosis. The volume of the sugar solution increases when it is diluted. The surface of the solution rises as shown in Figure 2. In this state of imbalance, water molecules begin to diffuse back in the opposite direction under the influence of the higher hydrostatic pressure in the solution.
When the diffusion of water in both directions is equal, the system is in equilibrium. If hydrostatic pressure is initially applied to the sugar solution, the intake of water through the membrane can be reduced. The hydrostatic pressure necessary to prevent equalization of the concentration by diffusion of water into the sugar solution is called the osmotic pressure of the solution. Zoom Fig. Only the small water molecules can diffuse to equalize the concentration.
If a pressure higher than the osmotic pressure is applied to the sugar solution, water molecules can be made to diffuse from the solution to the water, thereby increasing the concentration of the solution. This process illustrated in Figure 2. Dialysis is a technique employing the difference in concentration as a driving force to separate large particles from small ones in a solution, for example proteins from salts.
The solution to be treated is placed on one side of a membrane, and a solvent water on the other side. The membrane has pores of a diameter which allows the small salt molecules to pass through, but is too small for the protein molecules to pass, see Figure 2. The rate of diffusion varies with the difference in concentration, so dialysis can be speeded up if the solvent on the other side of the membrane is changed often.
The quantities of the various main constituents of milk can vary considerably between cows of different breeds and between individual cows of the same breed. Therefore only limit values can be stated for the variations. The numbers in Table 2. Besides total solids, the term solids-non-fat SNF is used in discussing the composition of milk.
SNF is the total solids content less the fat content. The mean SNF content according to Table is consequently The pH of normal milk generally lies between 6. Milk and cream are examples of fat-in-water or oil-in-water emulsions. The milk fat exists as small globules or droplets dispersed in the milk serum, Figure 2.
What is the density of 2 percent milk diameters range from 0. Milk fat consists of triglycerides what is the density of 2 percent milk dominating componentsdi- and monoglycerides, fatty acids, sterols, carotenoids giving the yellow colour of the fat and vitamins A, D, E, and K.
Trace elements are minor components. The composition of a milk fat globule is outlined in Figure 2. The membrane consists of phospholipids, lipoproteins, cerebrosides, proteins, nucleic acids, enzymes, trace elements metals and bound water.
Milk, lactose free...10981 weighs 257.83 g/metric cup (8.61 oz/US cup)
May 29, · It makes up about 5 percent of milk's content. If the fat content is lowered to percent, the milk is sold as whole milk. Low-fat milk typically has 1 percent or 2 percent fat. Since fat has a lower specific gravity and therefore is "lighter" than the milk serum, fat globules rise to the milk . Different kinds of milk have different densities e.g. buttermilk is denser than 2% milk, whole milk is denser than 2%. The general relation is mass (kg) =density (kg/m^3) x . The density of raw milk depends on its composition and temperature and can usually – literature data vary slightly – be found in the range of g/cm3 – g/cm3 at 20°C. Since milk is a multi-component system it is not possible to determine the concentration of one .
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Viscosity describes how thick a fluid is. Calculate volume of a spherical segment and its surface area. The Conversions and Calculations web site. Forum Login Register. The search results include links to various calculator pages associated with each found item. Weights and Measurements The gram per US tablespoon density measurement unit is used to measure volume in US tablespoons in order to estimate weight or mass in grams Dynamic viscosity is a measure of how resistive a fluid is to flow.
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