South Carolina History Timeline
Mar 17, †Ј South Carolina Department of Archives and History Director Eric Emerson points to elements a commission of historians he led used to come up with a possible standard design for the state flag . Mar 17, †Ј COLUMBIA Ч South Carolina senators may soon take up one of the most divisive issues to hit the state in years: standardizing the state flag's iconic palmetto tree and crescent design. The flag hoisted daily over the Statehouse looks different than those hanging in the House and Senate chambers and the governorТs office because the.
Each has advocated extremist reactionary positions such as white nationalismanti-immigration and Ч especially in later iterations Ч Nordicism  antisemitismanti-CatholicismProhibitionright-wing populismanti-communismhomophobiaIslamophobiaand anti-atheism. Historically, the first Klan used terrorism Ч both physical assault and murder Ч against politically active blacks and their allies in the Southern United States in the late s.
All three movements have called ccalled the "purification" of American society and all are considered " right-wing extremist " organizations. The first Klan was established in the wake of the Civil War and was a defining organization of the Reconstruction era. Organized entirely in what is south carolina state flag called Southern United Statesit was suppressed through federal callee in the early s.
It sought to overthrow the Republican state governments in the South, especially by using voter intimidation and targeted violence against African-American leaders.
Each chapter was autonomous and highly secret as to membership and plans. Its numerous chapters across the South were suppressed aroundthrough federal law enforcement. Members made their own, often colorful, costumes: robes, masks and conical hatsdesigned to be terrifying and whqt hide their identities. The second Klan started small in Georgia in It grew after and flourished nationwide in the early and mids, including urban areas of the Midwest and West.
Taking inspiration from D. Griffith 's silent film The Birth of a Nationwhich mythologized the founding of the first Klan, it employed marketing techniques and a popular fraternal organization structure. Rooted in local Protestant communities, it sought to maintain white supremacy, often took a pro-Prohibition stance, and it opposed Wgat and Jews, while also stressing its opposition to the alleged political power of the pope and the Catholic Church.
This second Klan flourished both in the south and northern states; it was funded by initiation fees and selling its ls a standard white costume. The chapters did not have dues. It used K-words which were similar to those used si the first Klan, while adding cross burnings and mass parades to intimidate others. It varolina declined in the later half of the s. The third and current how to setup a website to collect donations of the KKK emerged afterin the form of localized and isolated groups that use the KKK name.
They have focused on opposition to the civil rights movementoften using violence and murder to suppress activists. The second and third incarnations of the Ku Klux Klan made frequent references to America's " Anglo-Saxon " blood, hearkening back to 19th-century nativism.
Calvin Jones and James Crowe. It borrowed parts of the initiation ceremony from that group, with the same purpose: "ludicrous initiations, the baffling of public curiosity, and the amusement for members were the only objects of the Klan", according to Albert Stevens in Whta of Pulaski.
The members how do you system restore on xp conjured up a veritable Frankenstein.
They had played with an engine of power and mystery, though organized on entirely innocent lines, and found atate overcome by a belief that something must lie behind it all Ч that there was, after all, a serious purpose, a work for the Klan to do. Although there was little organizational structure above the local level, similar groups rose across the South and adopted the same name and methods.
For example, Confederate veteran John W. Os founded a chapter in Nashville, Tennessee. The first Klan had mixed results in terms of achieving its objectives. It seriously weakened the black political leadership through its use of assassinations and threats of violence; it drove some people out of politics. On the other hand, it what is the best framework for web development a sharp backlash, with passage of federal laws that historian Eric Foner says carolia a success in terms of "restoring order, reinvigorating the morale of Southern Republicans, varolina enabling blacks to exercise their rights as citizens".
Rable argues that waht Klan was cwrolina political failure and therefore was discarded by the Whag Party leaders of the South. He says:. The Klan declined in strength in part because of internal weaknesses; its lack wht central organization and the failure stare its leaders to control criminal elements and sadists.
More fundamentally, it declined because it failed to achieve its central objective Ч the overthrow of Republican state governments in the South. After the Klan was suppressed, similar insurgent paramilitary groups arose that were explicitly directed at suppressing Republican voting and turning Republicans out of office: the White Leaguewhich started in Louisiana in ; and the Red Shirtswhich started in Mississippi and developed chapters in the Carolinas. They were described as acting as the military arm of the Democratic Party and are attributed with helping white Democrats regain control of state legislatures throughout the South.
While Simmons relied on documents from the original Klan and memories of some surviving elders, the revived Klan was based significantly on the wildly popular film The Birth of a Nation. The earlier Klan had not worn the white costumes and had not burned crosses; these aspects were introduced in the book on which the film was based. When the film was shown in Atlanta in December of that year, Simmons and his new klansmen paraded to the theater in robes and pointed hoods Ч many on robed horses Ч just like in the movie.
These mass parades would become another hallmark atate the new Klan that had not existed in the original Reconstruction-era organization. Souh init adopted a modern business system of using full-time, paid recruiters and it appealed to new members as a fraternal organization, of which many examples were flourishing at the time.
The national headquarters made its profit through a monopoly on costume sales, while the organizers were paid wbat initiation fees. It whhat rapidly nationwide at a time of prosperity. Reflecting the how to connect to teamspeak server tensions pitting urban versus rural America, it spread to every state and was prominent in many sojth. The second KKK preached "One Hundred Percent Americanism" and demanded the purification of soouth, calling for strict morality and better enforcement of Prohibition.
Its official rhetoric focused on the threat of the Catholic Churchusing anti-Catholicism and nativism. The second Klan was flaag formal fraternal organizationwith a national and state structure.
During the resurgence of the second Klan in the s, its publicity was handled by the Southern Publicity Association. Within the first six months of the Association's national recruitment campaign, Klan membership had increased by 85, From there were two Ku Klux Klan organizations: that founded by Simmons, and a splinter group founded by D.
Internal divisions, criminal behavior by leaders Ч especially Stephenson's conviction for the abduction, rape, and murder of Madge Oberholtzer Ч and external opposition brought about a collapse in the membership of both groups.
The main group's membership had dropped to about 30, by It finally faded away in the s. The "Ku Klux Klan" name was used by numerous independent local groups opposing the civil xouth movement and desegregationespecially in the s and s. During this period, they often forged alliances with Southern police departments, as in Birmingham, Alabama ; or with governor's offices, as with Si Wallace of Alabama.
The United States sgate still considers the Klan to be a "subversive terrorist organization". The existence of modern Klan groups has been in a state of consistent decline due to a variety of factors from the American public's negative distaste of the group's image, platform, and what is south carolina state flag called, infiltration and prosecution by law enforcement, civil lawsuit forfeitures, and the radical right-wing's perception of the Klan as outdated and unfashionable. The Southern Poverty Law Center reported that just between and the number of Klan groups in America dropped from to just Estimates of total collective membership range from about 3,  to 8, Historians generally classify the KKK as part of the post-Civil War insurgent violence related not only to the high number of veterans in the population, but also to their effort to control the dramatically changed social situation by using extrajudicial means to restore white supremacy.
InMississippi governor William L. Sharkey reported that disorder, lack of control, and lawlessness were widespread; in some states armed bands of Confederate soldiers roamed at will. The Klan used public violence against black people and their allies as intimidation. They burned houses and attacked and killed black peopleleaving their bodies on the roads.
Many prominent southern Jews identified wholly with southern culture, resulting in examples of Jewish participation in the Soith. At an meeting in Nashville, TennesseeKlan members gathered to try to xtate a hierarchical organization with local chapters eventually reporting to a national headquarters. Since most of the Klan's members were veterans, they were used to such military hierarchy, but the Klan never operated under this centralized structure.
Local chapters and bands were highly independent. Former Confederate brigadier calledd George Gordon developed the Prescriptwhich espoused white supremacist belief. For instance, an applicant should be asked if he was in favor of "a white man's government", "the reenfranchisement and emancipation what pain is associated with ms the whaat men of the South, and the restitution of the Southern people to all their rights".
Confederate general Nathan Bedford Forrest was elected the first grand wizardand claimed to be the Klan's national leader. Despite Gordon's and Forrest's work, local Klan units never accepted the Prescript and continued to operate autonomously. There were never hierarchical levels or state headquarters. Klan members used violence to settle old personal feuds and local grudges, as they worked to restore general white dominance in the disrupted postwar society.
The historian Elaine Frantz Parsons describes the membership:. Caled the Klan mask revealed a chaotic multitude of antiblack vigilante groups, disgruntled poor white farmers, wartime guerrilla bands, displaced Democratic politicians, illegal whiskey distillers, coercive moral reformers, sadists, rapists, white workmen fearful of black competition, employers trying to enforce labor discipline, common thieves, neighbors with decades-old grudges, and even a few freedmen and white Republicans who allied with Democratic whites or had criminal agendas of their how to loosen tight screws on electronics. Indeed, all they had in common, besides callde overwhelmingly white, southern, and Democratic soufh, was that they called themselves, or were called, Klansmen.
Historian Eric Foner observed: "In effect, the Klan was a military force serving the interests of the Fflag party, the planter classand all those who desired restoration glag white supremacy. Its purposes were political, but political in the broadest sense, stwte it sought to affect power relations, both public and private, throughout Southern society. It aimed to reverse the interlocking changes sweeping over the South during Reconstruction: to destroy the Republican party's infrastructure, undermine the Reconstruction state, reestablish control of the black statf force, and restore racial carolija in every aspect of Southern life.
Those political leaders assassinated during the campaign included Arkansas Congressman James M. Hindsthree carolian of the South Carolina legislature, and several men cal,ed served in constitutional conventions. Klan members adopted masks and robes that hid their identities and added to the drama of their night rides, their chosen time for attacks.
Many of them operated in small towns and rural areas where people otherwise knew each other's faces, and sometimes still recognized the attackers by voice and mannerisms. Few freedmen took such nonsense seriously. When they killed black political leaders, they also took heads of families, along with the leaders of churches and community groups, because these people had many roles in society. Agents of the Freedmen's Bureau reported weekly assaults and murders of blacks. They drove successful black farmers off their land.
Klan violence worked to suppress black voting, and campaign seasons were deadly. More than 2, people were killed, wounded, or otherwise injured in Louisiana within a few weeks prior to the Presidential election of November Although St. Landry Parish had a tlag Republican majority of 1, after the murders, no Republicans voted in the fall elections.
White Democrats cast the full vote of the parish for President Grant's opponent. The KKK killed and wounded more than black Republicans, hunting and chasing them through the woods. Thirteen captives were taken from jail and shot; a half-buried pile of 25 bodies was found in the woods. The KKK made people vote Democratic and gave them certificates of the fact. By the November presidential electionKlan intimidation led to suppression of the Republican vote and only one person voted for Ulysses S.
South Carolina was one of the original thirteen states of the United States. European exploration of the area began in April , with the Hernando de Soto expedition, who unwittingly introduced new Eurasian diseases that decimated the local Native American populations, because they lacked immunity. In , the English Crown granted land to eight proprietors of what became the colony. South Carolina was the first state to secede from the Union in December , and was one of the founding member states of the Confederacy in February The bombardment of the beleaguered U.S. garrison at Fort Sumter in Charleston Harbor on April 12, is generally recognized as the first military engagement of the war.. South Carolina was a source of troops for the Confederate Army. South Carolina, constituent state of the U.S., one of the 13 original colonies. Shaped like an inverted triangle, it is bounded on the north by North Carolina, on the southeast by the Atlantic Ocean, and on the southwest by Georgia. Columbia, located in the center of the state, is the capital and largest city.
South Carolina , constituent state of the United States of America , one of the 13 original colonies. It lies on the southern Eastern Seaboard of the United States. Shaped like an inverted triangle with an east-west base of miles km and a north-south extent of about miles km , the state is bounded on the north by North Carolina , on the southeast by the Atlantic Ocean , and on the southwest by Georgia. Columbia , located in the centre of the state, is the capital and largest city.
Settled by the English in , South Carolina had a wealthy, aristocratic, and influential colonial society based on a plantation agriculture that relied on a labour force of Black slaves. The plantation system spread from the coastal lowlands into the rolling inland region in the early 19th century, and the new state became part of the Cotton Belt that stretched across the South. Area 32, square miles 82, square km. Population 4,,; est. South Carolina can be divided geologically into three separate provinces.
The worn, undulating relief of the Piedmont province, with an elevation ranging from about to about 1, feet 90 to metres , stretches from the mountains southeastward to the midlands around Columbia; it constitutes nearly one-third of the state. At the edge of the Piedmont lie the Sandhills, which run diagonally across the centre of the state from northeast to southwest. The Coastal Plain province comprises the southern and eastern thirds of the state, and its elevation varies from sea level to about feet 90 metres.
The region is slightly rolling near the midlands and flat toward the coast. Its mile km coastline consists of the Grand Strand, an unbroken beach stretching from the North Carolina border southward for more than miles km before giving way to the tidal and freshwater marshes of the Sea Islands , which extend into Georgia.
The fall line, where rivers form major rapids, divides the sedimentary rocks of the Coastal Plain from the metamorphic rocks of the Piedmont. The Piedmont, in turn, is separated from the Blue Ridge province by a fault line known as the Brevard Zone. The Ashley-Combahee-Edisto system comprises the short rivers that form near the Sandhills and flow across the Coastal Plain. Carrying little sediment, their waters are blackened by tannic acid from the swamps along their courses.
South Carolina has no large natural lakes; those on the Savannah River and Santee tributaries resulted from hydroelectric development in the 20th century. On the Coastal Plain are hundreds of elliptically shaped depressions of varying sizes typified by swamp vegetation and standing water in the centre.
The formation of these so-called Carolina bays remains a mystery; some geographers have attributed them to the impact of a comet or meteor. Although South Carolina has more than types of soils, the land is generally infertile and must be enriched with nutrients for successful cultivation. The poorly developed Blue Ridge soils lack clay accumulation beneath the surface, which renders them unsuited to farming.
In the Piedmont province the reddish soils are clayey, with noticeable deposits of calcium, magnesium, and potassium. However, more than years of cotton and corn maize cultivation has contributed to severe soil erosion.
Soils in the Coastal Plain are generally formed from marine deposits of sand, clay, and limestone over granite and other crystalline substances. Average July temperatures range from the low 70s F low 20s C in the highland northwest to the low 80s F upper 20s C in the midlands and along the coast.
The growing season ranges from fewer than days in the northwestern part of the state to about days on the Sea Islands. Most of the state receives nearly 50 inches 1, mm of precipitation annually, but 70 to 80 inches 1, to 2, mm are recorded in the mountains in the northwest. Summer rainfall, typified by afternoon thunderstorms, normally exceeds that of any other season.
The state experiences some 10 tornadoes a year, usually occurring during the spring. South Carolina. Videos Images. Additional Info. Print print Print. Table Of Contents. While every effort has been made to follow citation style rules, there may be some discrepancies. Please refer to the appropriate style manual or other sources if you have any questions.
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