How diabetes got its name
More meanings for mellitus. honeyed adjective. mellarius. darling adjective. suavis, savis, amatus. sweetened adjective. Of or pertaining to honey. Sweetened with honey, honey- sweet, honeyed. (figuratively) As sweet as honey; honey-sweet, darling, lovely. (figuratively, substantive, term of endearment) Sweet, darling, honey.
Diabetes mellitus DMcommonly known as just diabetesis a group of metabolic disorders characterized by a high blood sugar level over a prolonged period of time. Diabetes is due to either the pancreas not producing enough insulinor the cells of the body not responding properly to the insulin produced. Type 1 diabetes must be managed with insulin injections.
As of [update]an estimated million people had diabetes worldwide 8. The classic symptoms of untreated diabetes are unintended weight losspolyuria increased urinationpolydipsia increased thirstand polyphagia increased hunger.
Several other signs and symptoms can mark the onset of diabetes although they are not specific to the disease. In addition to the known ones above, they include blurred visionheadachefatigueslow healing of cutsand itchy skin. Prolonged high blood glucose can cause glucose absorption in the lens of the eyewhich leads to changes in its shape, resulting in vision changes. Long-term vision loss can also be caused by diabetic retinopathy.
A number of skin rashes that can occur in how to big curly hair are collectively known as diabetic dermadromes.
People with diabetes usually but not exclusively in type 1 diabetes may also experience diabetic ketoacidosis DKAa metabolic disturbance characterized by nausea, vomiting and abdominal painthe smell of acetone on the breath, deep breathing known as Kussmaul breathingand in severe cases a decreased level of consciousness. DKA requires emergency treatment in hospital.
Treatment-related low blood sugar hypoglycemia is maen in people with type 1 and also type 2 diabetes depending on the medication being used. Most cases are mild and are not considered medical emergencies. Effects can range from feelings of uneasesweatingtremblinghow to hack my computer password windows 7 increased appetite in mild cases to more serious effects such as confusionchanges in behavior such as aggressivenessseizuresunconsciousnessand rarely permanent brain damage or death in severe cases.
Severe cases can lead to unconsciousness wjat must be treated with intravenous glucose or injections with glucagon. All forms of diabetes increase the risk of long-term complications. These typically develop after many years 10—20 but may be the first symptom in those who have otherwise not received a diagnosis before that time.
The major long-term complications relate to damage to blood vessels. The primary complications of diabetes due to damage in small blood vessels include damage to the eyes, kidneys, and nerves.
It is recommended that people with diabetes jn an eye doctor once a xoes. Diabetes-related foot problems such as diabetic foot melitus may occur, and can be difficult to treat, occasionally requiring amputation.
Additionally, proximal diabetic neuropathy causes painful muscle atrophy and weakness. There is a link between cognitive deficit and diabetes. Compared to those without diabetes, those with the disease have a 1.
Diabetes mellitus is classified into six categories: type 1 diabetestype 2 diabeteshybrid forms of diabetes, hyperglycemia first detected during pregnancy, "unclassified diabetes", and "other specific types". The "hyperglycemia first detected during pregnancy" contains gestational diabetes mellitus and diabetes mellitus in pregnancy type 1 or type 2 diabetes first diagnosed during pregnancy.
The "other specific types" are a collection of a few dozen individual causes. Diabetes is a more variable disease than once thought and people may have combinations of forms.
Type 1 diabetes is characterized by loss of the insulin-producing beta cells of the pancreatic isletsleading to insulin deficiency. This type can be further classified as immune-mediated or idiopathic.
The majority of type 1 diabetes is of an immune-mediated nature, in which a T cell -mediated autoimmune attack leads to the loss ln beta cells and thus insulin. Most affected people are otherwise healthy and of a healthy weight when onset occurs. Sensitivity and responsiveness to insulin are usually normal, especially in the early stages.
Although it has been called "juvenile diabetes" what are the most durable countertops to the frequent onset in children, the majority of individuals living with type 1 diabetes are now adults. This term, however, has no biologic basis and should not be used.
Other complications include an impaired counterregulatory response to low blood sugar, infection, gastroparesis which leads to erratic absorption of dietary carbohydratesand endocrinopathies e. Type 1 diabetes is partly inheritedwith multiple genes, what are polish men like certain HLA genotypesknown to influence the risk of diabetes.
In genetically susceptible people, the onset of diabetes can be triggered by one or more environmental factors such as a viral infection or diet. Several viruses have been implicated, but to date there is no stringent evidence to support this hypothesis in humans. Type 1 diabetes can occur at any age, and a significant proportion is diagnosed during adulthood.
Latent autoimmune diabetes of adults LADA is the diagnostic term applied when type 1 diabetes develops in adults; it has a slower onset than the same condition in children. Whatt this difference, some use the unofficial term "type 1. Adults with LADA are frequently initially misdiagnosed as having type 2 diabetes, based on age rather than a cause. Type 2 diabetes is characterized by insulin resistancewhich may be combined with relatively reduced insulin secretion.
Lqtin, the specific defects are not known. Diabetes mellitus cases due to a known defect are classified separately. Type 2 diabetes is the most common type of diabetes mellitus. Type 2 diabetes is primarily due to lifestyle factors and genetics. Dietary factors such as sugar -sweetened drinks are associated with an increased risk. Gestational diabetes resembles type 2 diabetes in several respects, involving a combination of relatively inadequate insulin secretion and responsiveness.
Management may include dietary changes, blood glucose monitoring, and in some cases, insulin may be required. Though it may what is a pitch letter transient, untreated gestational diabetes can damage the health of the fetus or mother.
Risks to the baby include macrosomia high birth weightcongenital heart and central nervous system abnormalities, and skeletal muscle malformations. Increased levels of insulin in a fetus's blood may inhibit fetal surfactant production and cause infant respiratory distress syndrome.
A high blood bilirubin level may result from red blood cell destruction. In severe cases, perinatal death may occur, most commonly as a result of poor placental perfusion due to vascular impairment. Labor induction may be indicated with decreased placental function. A caesarean section may mesn performed if there is marked fetal distress or an increased risk of injury associated with macrosomia, such as shoulder dystocia.
Maturity onset diabetes of the young MODY is a rare autosomal dominant inherited form of diabetes, due to one of several single-gene mutations causing defects in insulin production. The name of this disease refers to early hypotheses as to its nature.
Mmellitus due to a defective gene, this disease varies in age at presentation and in severity according to the specific gene defect; thus there are at least 13 subtypes of MODY.
People with MODY often can control it without using insulin. Some cases of diabetes are caused by the body's tissue receptors not responding to insulin even when insulin levels are normal, which is what emllitus it from type 2 diabetes ; this form is very uncommon.
Genetic mutations autosomal or mitochondrial can lead to defects what food is best for menopause symptoms beta cell function. Abnormal insulin action may also have been genetically determined in some cases.
Any disease that causes extensive damage to the pancreas may lead to diabetes for example, chronic pancreatitis and cystic fibrosis. Diseases associated with excessive secretion of insulin-antagonistic hormones can cause diabetes which is typically resolved once the hormone excess is removed. Many drugs impair insulin secretion and some toxins damage pancreatic beta cells, whereas others increase insulin resistance especially glucocorticoids which can provoke " steroid diabetes ".
This is when a type 1 diabetic becomes insulin resistant, the hallmark for type 2 diabetes or has a family history for type 2 diabetes. The following is a list of disorders that may increase the risk of diabetes: . Insulin is the principal hormone that regulates the uptake of glucose from the blood into most cells of the body, especially liver, adipose tissue and muscle, except smooth oatin, in which insulin acts via the IGF Therefore, deficiency of insulin or the insensitivity of its receptors play a central role in all forms of diabetes mellitus.
The nean obtains glucose from three main sources: the intestinal absorption of food; the breakdown of glycogen glycogenolysisthe storage form of glucose found in the liver; and gluconeogenesisthe generation of glucose from non-carbohydrate substrates in the body. Insulin can inhibit the breakdown of glycogen or the process of gluconeogenesis, it can stimulate the transport of glucose into fat and muscle cells, and it can stimulate the storage of glucose in the form of glycogen.
Insulin is used by about two-thirds of the body's cells to absorb glucose from the blood for use as fuel, for conversion to other needed molecules, or for storage. Lower glucose levels result in decreased insulin release from the beta cells and in the breakdown of glycogen to glucose. This process is mainly controlled by the hormone glucagon mdllitus, which acts in the opposite manner to insulin.
If the amount of insulin available is insufficient, or if cells respond poorly to the effects of insulin insulin resistanceor if the insulin itself is defective, then glucose is not absorbed properly by the body cells that require it, and is not stored appropriately in the liver and muscles. The net effect is persistently high levels of blood glucose, poor protein synthesisand other metabolic derangements, such as metabolic acidosis in cases of complete insulin deficiency.
When glucose concentration in the blood remains high over time, the kidneys reach a threshold of reabsorptionand the body excretes glucose in the urine glycosuria. Lost mexn volume is replaced osmotically from water in body cells and other body compartments, causing dehydration and increased thirst polydipsia. Diabetes mellitus is diagnosed with a test for the glucose content in the blood, and is diagnosed by demonstrating any one of the following: .
A positive result, in the absence of unequivocal high blood sugar, should be confirmed by a repeat of any of the above methods on a different day. It is preferable to measure a fasting kellitus level because of the ease of measurement and the considerable time commitment of formal glucose tolerance testing, which takes two what is a v stitch in crochet to complete and offers no prognostic advantage over the fasting test.
Per the WHO, people with fasting glucose levels from 6. Of these two prediabetic states, the latter in particular is a major risk factor for progression to full-blown diabetes mellitus, as well as cardiovascular disease. Glycated hemoglobin is better than fasting glucose for determining risks of cardiovascular disease and death from any cause. There mmellitus no known preventive measure for type 1 diabetes.
The relationship between type 2 diabetes and the main modifiable risk factors excess weight, unhealthy diet, physical inactivity and tobacco use is similar what does mellitus mean in latin all regions of the world.
Mewn is growing evidence that the underlying determinants of diabetes are a reflection of the major forces driving social, economic and cultural change: globalization what is wine vinegar made of, urbanization, population aging, and the general health policy environment.
Diabetes management concentrates on keeping blood sugar levels as close to normal, without causing low blood sugar. This can usually be accomplished dors dietary changes, exercise, weight loss, and use of appropriate medications insulin, oral medications. Learning about the disease and actively participating in the treatment is important, since complications are far less common and less severe lztin people who latim well-managed blood sugar levels.
These include smokinghigh blood pressuremetabolic syndrome obesityand lack of regular exercise. People with diabetes can benefit from education about the disease and treatment, dietary changes, and exercise, with the goal of keeping both short-term and long-term blood glucose levels within acceptable bounds.
In addition, given the associated higher risks of cardiovascular disease, lifestyle modifications are recommended to control blood pressure. Weight loss can prevent progression from prediabetes to diabetes type 2decrease the risk of cardiovascular disease, or result in a partial remission in people with diabetes.
Most medications used to treat diabetes act by lowering blood sugar levels through different mechanisms.
The word Mellitus comes from the Latin word "mellitus" meaning honey-sweet. It is a word closely associated with diabetes as in diabetes mellitus. It started being associated with diabetes when 'uroscopy' or the analysis of urine to identify the type of disease came along. a variable disorder of carbohydrate metabolism caused by a combination of hereditary and environmental factors and usually characterized by inadequate secretion or utilization of insulin, by excessive urine production, by excessive amounts of sugar in the blood and urine, and by thirst, hunger, and loss of weight — compare type 1 diabetes, type 2 diabetes. Oct 31, · Mellitus means, “pleasant tasting, like honey.” Ancient Chinese and Japanese physicians noticed dogs were particularly drawn to some people’s urine. When the urine was examined they found the urine had a sweet niceloveme.comted Reading Time: 3 mins.
Learn about where diabetes' name originated as part of Diabetes Awareness Month. November is Diabetes Awareness month. Taking time in November to get tested and learn something new about diabetes might turn out to be a real life saver for yourself or someone you love!
And most of us can define that having diabetes means controlling foods you eat especially those containing sugar. If we go back and take a look at the origin of the word diabetes, it can give you two important clues for your health. Diabetes has been around for centuries.
In fact, cases of diabetes can be traced as far back as the ancient Egyptians. In the s, dogs helped scientist study and determine how the pancreas and lack of the hormone insulin revealed signs of diabetes. They are, however, linked together and have a meaningful connection. When the urine was examined they found the urine had a sweet taste.
What made the urine sweet were high levels of glucose, or sugar. That is how this discovery of sweet urine became part of the name, diabetes mellitus. Both frequent urination and excess, sweet glucoses levels expelled in our urine can be signs of diabetes. Even though glucose is sweet, there is nothing sweet about having high blood glucose. It is a serious issue facing many people in the U.
If you are glucose intolerant your body may not be able to adequately break down glucose sugar. Without this natural breakdown of the foods we eat being turned into energy for our cells, glucose may build up in your blood. The body will need to rid itself of excess sugar in the blood stream by passing it though the kidneys and bladder out through urination.
Knowing the origin of diabetes mellitus helps give us a better understanding of symptoms related to the disease — high blood sugar and frequent urination. Getting tested for diabetes is the only way to know if you have the disease.
Both diabetes type 1 and type 2 are highly treatable under the care of your healthcare team. Lifestyle, genetic, and the environment all share a role in your risk for developing diabetes.
Diagnosis, care and treatment as well as learning how to be an active self-manager can make living with diabetes a sweet story. For more on diabetes prevention, diagnosis and care plans visit your health care provider. To understand the benefits of diabetes self-management and to enroll in a diabetes self-management workshop near you visit Michigan State Unversity Extension. This article was published by Michigan State University Extension. How diabetes got its name. Diabetes has been around for awhile Diabetes has been around for centuries.
Having Diabetes is anything but sweet Even though glucose is sweet, there is nothing sweet about having high blood glucose. Did you find this article useful?
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