Unequal power relations and partner violence against women in Tanzania: a cross-sectional analysis
Mar 23, · Background Sleep habits and burnout have been shown to be associated with increase in infectious diseases, but it is unknown if these factors are associated with risk of COVID We assessed whether sleep and self-reported burnout may be risk factors for COVID among high-risk healthcare workers (HCWs). Methods From 17 July to 25 September , a web-based survey was . Mar 08, · Objective The microbiome directly affects the balance of pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory responses in the gut. As microbes thrive on dietary substrates, the question arises whether we can nourish an anti-inflammatory gut ecosystem. We aim to unravel interactions between diet, gut microbiota and their functional ability to induce intestinal inflammation.
Metrics details. Research on factors associated with partner violence against women is often framed within the context of gender inequality and power imbalances wuat husbands and wives—inequalities that are considered products of broader structural systems.
Tanzania, a patriarchal society where high levels of partner violence exists, has gone through rapid economic and social changes over the past two decades. Nationally representative population-based data documents In order to plan appropriate interventions to end violence against women, factors consistently associated with abuse need to be understood.
Multivariate regression analysis was used to explore individual and relational-level variables—including socio-demographic characteristics and history of abuse among women, partner behavioural characteristics, and indicators of gender and economic inequality—among married and cohabiting couples. Partner behavioural test polygamy and problematic alcohol use were also associated with risk. When considering attitudes tolerant towards wife abuse, the strongest dose with risk of violence was when both partners held tolerant views.
In addition to interventions that focus on transforming gender norms and attitudes at the individual and community levelsaddressing economic, legal and political structural barriers are also required.
Peer Review reports. Violence against women is widely accepted as a human rights violation and public health concern [ 12 ]. The most common form of violence against women is that perpetrated by men towards their female partners, and prevalence estimates suggest that globally, one in three women have experienced physical or sexual violence by an intimate partner generally defined as a current or former spouse or cohabiting partner in their lifetime [ 3 ].
These gendered inequalities are theorised to be products of broader structural systems—political e. Poverty or low household socio-economic status SES has been consistently found to be associated with higher rates of partner violence against women in low- and middle-income countries LMIC and in high income settings [ 9101112 ].
Early theories, family stress theory, argued that the inherent stress of poverty is the mediating factor that leads men to be violent towards their wives and female partners [ 11 ]. In such settings, limited or poor employment options for men may then lead to feelings of anxiety and despair and a crisis of male identity ensues. A competing view, relative resource theory, however, asserts that economic e.
Another factor that has the effect to disadvantage women is early or other forms of abuse. By contrast, men who witness violence towards texf mothers or who were beaten themselves as children are more likely to become perpetrators of violence [ 172324 ]. By development indicators, the country made notable progress towards achieving the millennium development goal related to gender equality. Further, it remains a patriarchal society and high gender inequality continues to exist—with a gender inequality index score of 0.
In addition to domestic duties, a very high proportion of women are engaged in productive work outside of the household, principally subsistence agricultural work in small farms shamba [ 2528 ]. During the late s and early s Tanzania embarked on a series of structural economic reforms, the effects of which led to rapid social changes [ 29 ]. Increasing numbers of men migrated from their natal whst in search of employment opportunities that led what does gmh mean in text women taking on new roles such as responsibilities as the head of the household and seeking tfxt work [ 13303132 ].
Social norms, however, continue to govern that men are the head of the household and the main family breadwinner, and women, whose responsibilities are familial, rely on their husbands for household needs [ 3334ggmh ]. As women began to take on greater financial responsibilities, such what does gmh mean in text feeding the family, men began to retreat from theirs [ 1332 ].
In DSM high rates of abandoned women; extra-marital relationships; excessive drinking among men and frequent occurrence of aggression and violence between men and women were observed [ 13 ].
Prevalence estimates from the most recent Tanzania Demographic and Health Survey DHS confirms that partner violence against women is high— The DHS uses a multistage sampling method to dose a nationally representative sample of households [ 36 ].
Within each cluster, 22 households were randomly selected. A household survey, which included a listing of the names, ages and sex of all resident individuals, was administered and completed in 12, how to connect dv camcorder to computer 13, households. Data were used for the matched couples where the domestic violence module had been administered to women see Fig.
Verbal informed consent was obtained from all individual respondents included in the study who were able to accept or decline to participate. Sample of couples where both members completed the individual questionnaires including teext module on domestic violence.
To gmhh physical how to draw a skateboard ramp sexual partner violence, each woman was asked if her husband or partner had ever: pushed, shaken or thrown something at her; slapped her; twisted her arm or etxt her hair; punched her with his fist or with something that could hurt her; kicked, dragged or beat her; choked or burned her; threatened or attacked her with a knife or other weapon; physically forced her to have sexual intercourse when she did not want; physically forced her to perform other sexual acts; or forced what makes plants grow faster science project with threats to perform sexual acts.
If a woman responded yes to any act, she was asked if it had happened in the past 12 months and a woman who gave an affirmative response to one or more act was considered to have experienced physical or sexual partner violence in the past 12 months. Women who reported they owned at least one gmmh alone was coded as sole wat, and women who reported joint ownership of one or both assets but none alone were coded joint ownership.
The number of children born to doex, also recorded as a continuous variable, was capped at five. Women reporting no use or less than once a month were considered infrequent users and women who reported they drank alcohol either every day or some days per month were considered frequent users.
Household socio-economic status SES was recorded as a five-category variable in the DHS and was based on household responses to ownership of assets and housing characteristics. For each question a binary variable was created to establish whether the man was in a polygamous relationship and whether he had fathered children with more than one woman.
Five relational-level variables, all measured on a four-level categorical scale, which reflect the extent of differences in the characteristic between the man and the woman, were also considered for analyses. For the univariate logistic regression a p -value of less how to tell if a persian rug is real 0.
Two sets of multivariate regressions were run, the first only included individual level factors and the second included in addition to how to wake up energized individual factors the relational-level variables where associated individual-level variables were removed because of collinearity.
The total number ,ean couples in this study is or individuals. Almost three-quarters of couples Dev 7. Over half Similar educational attainment levels were reported among men— The vast majority of women Virtually all men were engaged in productive work— Prevalence of past year partner violence was highest among women who were working either seasonally Mewn year physical or sexual partner violence was also higher among women possessing attitudes tolerant towards wife abuse agree with at least one reason to hit compared to wgat who did not agree with any reason a man was justified to hit his wife Finally, prevalence of past year partner violence was higher among women with prior history of violence: non-partner physical violence Violence was lowest among women who had completed secondary education or higher Past year physical or sexual violence against women was higher in relationships where men were in unpaid or paid in-kind work When considering relational-level factors, past year physical or sexual partner violence was highest in relationships when both displayed the characteristic that was associated with highest risk of violence at individual level, e.
Compared to women having no births, women reporting at least one birth had higher odds of experiencing past year partner violence—with significant associations found with having had 2 births. The result of the final relational model is also shown in Table 2. Compared to households where both the man and woman were not working or in unpaid work, households where at least one of the partner was in paid work was associated with lower risk—significant lower risk being found when both the woman and man are in the same type either both seasonal or both stable of paid work, or when the man is in stable paid work and whaf woman in seasonal paid work.
Possessing attitudes tolerant towards wife abuse was significantly associated with higher risk of violence with the strongest association found in couples where both the woman and her partner held tolerant views.
Likewise, with alcohol use, the strongest association with higher risk of partner violence was when both the woman and her partner reported frequent alcohol use. Among factors relating to the woman, a significant risk association was found with exposure to violence in childhood witnessing mother being hit. This highlights the cyclical nature of violence that serve to disadvantage women by conferring vulnerability in later life. A study in Rakai District, Uganda, documented the same result men argued either early sexual onset has a disempowering effect on women who are then less able to protect themselves against violence later in life, or that women who become sexually active early are self-selected for subsequent abusive relationships [ 41 ].
A study in Viet Nam documented similar findings how to do your tax return terms of having children or not [ 17 ].
It could be hypothesized that there is a potential link between increasing number of children and what is a digital television decrease in potential mena women to engage in employment, and that the observed association is a reinforcement of the structural norms which serve to keep women dependent on their partners.
Analysis of the WHO study data from Tanzania found that ownership of capital assets did not have the empowering effect to enable abused women to leave a violent relationship [ 46 ]. It may be that women who own assets are more likely to be confrontational or that it is a transgression of gender norms and men use violence to reassert their dominance within the household. Alternatively, it may be that abused women who are able to, invest in capital ib with the view to leave a violent relationship at some point in the future.
Greater household SES, usually measured by ownership of assets in LMIC, has generally been found to be protective although not always significantly [ 9how to make fresh smoothies ]. In this study, a significant protective association with asset wealth was found only at the bivariate level and with eoes the highest asset quintile. This could reflect a greater difference in wealth between the top one-fifth of households and the rest.
Reasons for the finding with polygamy could be that women have less power and are more likely how to alleviate poverty in africa be dependent on their husbands, thus raising their vulnerability, or because women are likely to chafe at this expression of traditional privileges, as found in Moshi, Tanzania [ 50 ]. In this study, compared to not working, the odds of partner violence against women was significantly lower when the man was working and a lower odds ratio albeit slightly was observed among men in stable paid work.
Interestingly, and in line with family stress theory, in the relational model both the woman and the man working in the same category of employment either both stable paid or both seasonal paid and when the man is in stable paid and the woman in seasonal employment i.
Several limitations underlie this study which must be borne in mind when interpreting the results. The first is that the cross-sectional design of the study means that it is not possible to determine the directionality of relationships between many of the variables and partner violence. A second limitation of this study is that the analysis is limited by the variables provided which have not necessarily been collected with this analysis in mind. Over the last few years, Tanzania society has undergone structural economic reforms, with an increased ij of women working and an increased number of men experiencing a crisis of masculinities.
At the same time, the government of Tanzania has introduced measures to address violence against women in the country with developments of guidelines for clinical management and law enforcement [ 49 ]. Against this backdrop, prevalence of partner violence against women remains high.
In other LMIC, targeted interventions to individuals, couples and the wider community have been found to reduce rates of partner violence [ 50 ]. Greater efforts, however, are required to address the structural constraints that perpetuate gender inequalities and that will continue to put women at risk. As efforts to address violence against women go on in Tanzania, this study provides an invaluable benchmark for the continuous monitoring of the effects these scale-up attempts have on reducing incidence of violence against women.
Article Google Scholar. A global overview of gender-based violence. Int J Gynecol Obstet. WHO, Global and regional estimates of violence against women. Prevalence and health effects of intimate partner violence and non-partner sexual violence.
Geneva: World Health Organization; Google Scholar. Dobash R, Dobash R. Violence against wives: a case against patriarchy. New York: How to make a stop motion video on imovie Press; Jewkes R. Intimate partner violence: causes and prevention.
Montesanti SR. What year was disney land built role of structural and interpersonal violence in the lives what is it like inside a black hole women: a conceptual shift in prevention of gender-based violence.
Nov 22, · Check out selected results from NYPL Title Quest , held August 2, , as well as Title Quest This is an update of a previous post by Sharon Rickson.. It can be tough to remember the title and author of a book you read a long time ago—even if . Nov 15, · Research on factors associated with partner violence against women is often framed within the context of gender inequality and power imbalances between husbands and wives—inequalities that are considered products of broader structural systems. Tanzania, a patriarchal society where high levels of partner violence exists, has gone through rapid economic and social changes over the past . Kipps C (the referenced article does not support the claimed number of micromorts, and contains no data from which it is possible to calculate the risk of death) BASE jumping Kjerag Massif, Norway – 9 20, jumps per jump Soreide Mountaineering Ascent to Matterhorn – about 75, ascents.
General Motors Company  GM is an American multinational corporation headquartered in Detroit , Michigan , USA that designs, manufactures, markets, and distributes vehicles and vehicle parts, and sells financial services, with global headquarters in Detroit's Renaissance Center. It was founded by William C. Durant on September 16, , as a holding company , and the present entity was established in after its restructuring.
The company is the largest American automobile manufacturer and one of the world's largest automobile manufacturers. As of , General Motors is ranked number 18 on the Fortune rankings of the largest United States corporations by total revenue.
General Motors manufactures vehicles in several countries;  its four core automobile brands are Chevrolet , Buick , GMC , and Cadillac. It also either owns or holds a significant stake in foreign brands such as Wuling, Baojun, and Jiefang. General Motors employs , people and does business in more than countries. The company also operates a mobility division called Maven , which operates car-sharing services in the United States, and is studying alternatives to individual vehicle ownership.
GM Defense is General Motors' military defense division, catering to the needs of the military for advanced technology and propulsion systems for military vehicles. General Motors led global annual vehicle sales for 77 consecutive years from through , longer than any other automaker, and is still among the world's largest automakers by vehicle unit sales.
General Motors acts in most countries outside the U. In , General Motors shed several brands, closing Saturn , Pontiac , and Hummer , and emerged from a government-backed Chapter 11 reorganization. In , the reorganized GM made an initial public offering that was one of the world's top five largest IPOs to date, and returned to profitability later that year.
William C. Durant 's Durant-Dort Carriage Company , of Flint, Michigan , had become the leading manufacturer of horse-drawn vehicles in the United States by Durant was averse to automobiles, but fellow Flint businessman James H. Durant, with the board's approval, tried acquiring Ford Motor Company in Durant re-entered the automotive industry the following year by co-founding the Chevrolet Motor Company with Swiss race car driver Louis Chevrolet who left the company bearing his name in Only two years later du Pont orchestrated the removal of Durant once again and replaced him with Alfred P.
Sloan established annual styling changes, making previous years' models "dated". He also implemented the pricing strategy that all car companies use today. The pricing strategy had Chevrolet , Pontiac , Oldsmobile , Buick , and Cadillac priced from least expensive to most, respectively. General Motors filed for a government-backed Chapter 11 reorganization on June 8, Also in , General Motors of Canada Limited was not part of the General Motors Chapter 11 bankruptcy, the company shed several brands, closing Saturn , Pontiac , and Hummer , while selling Saab Automobile to Dutch automaker Spyker , and emerged from a government-backed Chapter 11 reorganization.
In , the reorganized GM made an initial public offering that was one of the world's top five largest IPOs to-date, and returned to profitability later that year. Based on global sales in , General Motors was ranked among the world's largest automakers in January Welburn , was the first African American to lead a global automotive design organization, and was the highest ranking African American in the US motor industry in He was replaced by Michael Simcoe.
Barra also joined the GM board. The company has reported annual profits since In , General Motors ranked second on the list with 8. The top two markets in were China , with 2,, units, and the United States , with 2,, vehicles sold. The Chevrolet brand was the main contributor to GM performance, with 4. Despite profit decline, it was less than financial analysts predicted as a consequence of pricey pickup trucks sales.
As of February . The employees are not all Canadian, as some salaried personnel are from the U. The GM restructuring has resulted in a lower break-even point for annual sales and renewed profits because of the loss of millions of jobs. In mid, GM's corporate chrome power emblem " Mark of Excellence " began appearing on all recently introduced and all-new model vehicles produced and sold in North America. However, in the "New GM" reversed this, saying that emphasis on its four core divisions would downplay the GM logo.
In May , GM recorded an Employees from those plants would also be made redundant. In the third-largest individual country by sales was Brazil with some , GM vehicles sold.
Chevrolet still has a limited presence in Europe through imports of the Corvette and Camaro , while Cadillac maintains a limited presence as well.
The company manufactures most of its China market vehicles locally. The Shanghai GM plant was officially opened on December 15, , when the first Chinese-built Buick came off the assembly line.
Much of General Motors' recent growth has been in the People's Republic of China , where its sales rose Buick is strong in China from early Introduction by the Canadian Buick sold to the last Emperor of China, later being led by the Buick Regal subcompact. The last emperor of China owned a Buick. GM pushed the marketing of the Chevrolet brand in China in the mids as well.
As part of this push, GM transferred Buick Sail to that brand as an attempt to appeal to Chinese middle-class buyers looking for small and affordable cars. General Motors vehicle sales in China rose It is estimated that such a market in China is about 5 million vehicles a year, larger than the auto market in France and Britain combined. However, some are worried that 'local brands like Baojun could eventually become threats to their parent brands if they compete more against established models over time'.
Shanghai-GM-Wuling sold 1. GM products are also currently sold by the company Yanase Co. In August , GM announced plans to reactivate its plant that previously produced rebadged Chevrolet Blazer as Opel as well as Brazilian Blazer, and also build a new plant in Bekasi , West Java , Indonesia, which would produce 40, passenger cars per year for the Southeast Asian market.
In , GM exited the Indian market, which it had entered for the second time in The first time was in when it became the first car maker to manufacture cars in India. GM would, however, continue to manufacture cars from its Talegaon , Maharashtra plant for the export market. This plant has a capacity of 1,60, units annually. The older Halol, Gujarat plant with a capacity for 50, units stopped production on April 28, The India arm's domestic sales for April — March declined to 25, units from 32, the previous year and market share contracted from 1.
However, exports surged 89 percent during the same period to 70, units. About employees, 8 percent of GM's total Indian work-force, would be affected by the pull-out. Weak product line-up and below par service quality were the reasons for the poor showing by GM in India. According to the South Korean unit of General Motors, its domestic sales for March dropped by 58 percent, which is more than half compared to the past year.
In February , General Motors had said to shut down one factory and then decide what lies ahead for the remaining three plants in South Korea during rising losses there. GM has a long history in Egypt which began in the s with the assembly of cars and light pickup trucks for the local market. In the mid of the s, GM withdrew from the Egyptian market.
Some years later, the Ghabbour Brothers began to assemble Cadillac , Chevrolet and Buick models up to the s. In the s Miller Brothers Nigeria was founded as an importer of commercial vehicles of the Bedford brand into the country. In the plant and its distribution network were split into different companies and renamed as Federated Motors Industries.
Its facility located in Nairobi assembled a wide range of Isuzu trucks and buses including the popular Isuzu N-Series versatile light commercial vehicle, TF Series pick-ups and Isuzu bus chassis. Selling entire GM's General Motors began operating in South Africa in through its wholly owned subsidiary, General Motors South Africa and was a market that briefly had its own local brand, Ranger.
By it was targeting the production of 50, cars a year but was being hampered by national labor unrest, strikes, and protests. In sales of fully imported Holden vehicles into New Zealand began. New Zealand assembly of Holdens began in and by the end of the s Holdens replaced all Chevrolets and Pontiacs both in , and most Vauxhalls. Opel, Bedford, and Isuzu, vehicles were assembled or imported at different times during the s, s, and s. All local General Motors assembly plants in New Zealand closed by Inheriting an Australian identity, GMH amassed nationalist appeal, which was capitalised on in when the first fully manufactured Australian car, the Holden was released to great fanfare amongst the Australian public.
It was marketed as "Australia's Own" Holden, and became an iconic feature of post-war Australian culture. On December 10, ,  GM announced that Holden would cease manufacturing operations in Australia by the end of In , GM exited the Australian, and New Zealand markets, and confirmed that the Holden badge would cease to exist by The global design center and Lang Lang Victoria test track are set to be closed, with the remaining staff catering for warranty-related claims for up to 10 years.
Despite its announcement, GM will continue to have some presence in Australia, as they plan to export some Buick, Chevrolet, Cadillac, and GMC vehicles through a new entity called General Motors Specialty Vehicles, as plans are still on track to bring American-built brands to the region, which was announced before Holden's shutdown.
GM has also done much work in the development of electronics for GM auto racing. An unmodified Aurora V8 in the Aerotech, captured 47 world records, including the record for speed endurance in the Motorsports Hall of Fame of America.
Recently, the Cadillac V-Series has entered motorsports racing. Chevrolet leads individual makes with wins. In and , the drivers' championship was won by the closely linked now defunct HSV Dealer Team. Its character was entirely empirical; it was whatever key people in each company had been competent enough to organize and pursue. Charles F. Its work was well known to GM central management through its relationship as a supplier and consultancy to Cadillac and Buick.
United Motors acquired Delco, and Kettering began his association with Sloan. United Motors also acquired at this time the original Remy corporation  called the Remy Electric Company , a competitor of Delco. In General Motors bought United Motors. Today's main successor corporation is Delphi Automotive , which nowadays is an independent parent corporation.
<- What does voice mean in drama - What does imperious emissary mean->