Comprehensive guide to SAS PROC Format
and females in the old data set you could use PROC FREQ as follows. proc freq data = old; format sex sex.; table sex; run; But the SEX. format doesn’t come with SAS®. To make the above proc step work, you must create a user-defined format using PROC FORMAT. For example, proc format; value sex 1 = ‘Female’ 2 = ‘Male’; run;File Size: 71KB. You can use data set options with the CNTLIN= and CNTLOUT= data set options. See Data Set Options for a list. PROC FORMAT ; Task. Option. Specify a SAS data set from which PROC FORMAT builds informats or formats. CNTLIN. Create a SAS data set that stores information about informats or formats. CNTLOUT.
Recoding variables can be tedious, but it is often a necessary part of data analysis. Although creating a new variable is effective, it is also inefficient sws you have to create a new data set that contains the new variable. For large data sets, this is wasteful: most of the data remain the same; only the recoded variables are different. You can use formah same format for multiple data sets. You can even define multiple formats to analyze the same variable in multiple ways.
In the simplest situation, a recoding of a variable converts each raw value to an easier-to-interpret value. This is a terrible choice because it is not clear whether 0 represents males or females.
The data, das was originally coded as a binary indicator variable, has been duplicated by creating a character variable that contains the same information but is more understandable. Of course, now you have to use the new variable name to analyze the recoded data. If you have already written programs that refer to the Gender variable, you have to update the programs to use the new variable name. A more efficient choice is to use a custom-defined format. The beauty of using a format is that you do not have to change the data.
Instead, you simply define a format that changes the way that the data are used and displayed in SAS procedures. A data view is a third alternative, but formats have additional advantages. You can define the following format called GenderFmt. Notice that the analysis is run on the original data and use the original variable name. No additional data sets, views, or variables are created.
Vormat for character variables are used less often than formats for numeric variables, but the syntax is similar. In addition to recoding the values of a categorical variable, formats are useful because they enable you to merge or combine categories by defining a many-to-one mapping.
For example, the following character format recodes values of the TYPE variable and also combines the what to use to stop oil leaks and 'Wagon' categories into a single category.
Although it is not needed for this example, notice what care should be taken after normal delivery the format also includes an 'Other' category, which can be used to combine small groups. The 'Other' category will also handle invalid data. You can even define multiple formats if you want to slice and dice the inn in various ways.
One of my favorite SAS tricks is to use a format to bin numeric variables into categories. You can use this format to perform any computation that requires a classification variable. The example shows a two-way frequency analysis of hos two variables for which we have defined custom formats:.
Formats are stored in a catalog, which is stored separately from the data. Therefore, you need to store the formats to a permanent libref if you want to reuse the formats across SAS session. SAS supports several features that help you to maintain a permanent library of formats. Here are two facts about format catalogs:.
Yse facts imply that you can do two simple things to create a permanent library of formats. SAS provides many other options for storing formats and for specifying the search locations for formats. Save SAS Formats. In summary, if you need to recode data, custom-defined formats provide an easy alternative to physically changing the data. This article discusses five advantages to using formats to recode data:.
Do you maintain a library of SAS formats at your workplace? Leave a comment to share your experience and your best practices. His areas of expertise include computational statistics, simulation, statistical graphics, and modern methods in statistical data analysis.
How to make animated images, Working as a clinical data manager, I started to fall in love at first with format, for the reason you mentioned but also because in some PROC, the 'preloadfmt' helps a lot.
You pointed to the use i views. Do you have some tips or use cases when to prefer format vs metadata dataset?
Or any preferred article covering this tradeoff? Thank you for your thoughts. DATA step views are programs that compute variables when they are run. That is, the variable values are dynamically generated, rather than stored as numbers. Often this makes your code more concise, more readable, and less repetitive, especially if you need to recode multiple variables.
Great point. For instance, to divide a big dataset into two on the basis of whether some variable with a huge set of values; like flagging half the names in a giant database:. I use binning a lot by proc format.
But as a lazy analyst I would like to be helped by that. For example put the variable into how to use proc format in sas equally sized bins, but with meaningful rounded limits that can be modified easily. Is there something available in SAS - apart from running Freq and decide myself? You can then apply the format to make those values meaningful. You can also use the CNTLIN option to define the format by using a data set that contains the limits quantile boundaries for your user-defined format.
That looks good. Maybe I'll build a macro to transform it into a value statement for proc format. For a yow. Given your comment"Recoding variables can be tedious, but it is often a necessary part of data analysis.
For large data sets, this is wasteful:" You should not forget the principle of VIEWs This implements the recoding as data are read. Thanks for the reminder. I work on many projects that have durations of a couple months and it is nice that I can add a projects formats to the search path so I don't have to come up with different format names such as gender when the active project has gender coded differently and is sometimes critical as one project has 6 "genders" in addition to "not recorded" codes.
And multilabel formats are sometimes a very slick answer to some complicated report table layouts. As ballardw mentions, SAS also supports informats. There are several ways to define a tormat informat. Save my name, email, and website in this browser for the next time I comment.
An example of using a format to recode a variable In the simplest situation, a recoding of a variable converts each raw value to an easier-to-interpret value. This can be inefficient. Exclude hybrids. Tags Data Analysis Getting Started. Rick Wicklin on June 10, am. Ryan usse June 10, pm. Rick Wicklin on June 10, pm. Eric on June 11, am. Thanks, Eric Reply. Rick Wicklin on June 11, am. Thank you! Ronan on June 11, am. Peter on July 18, pm. For large data sets, this is wasteful:" You should not forget the principle of VIEWs This implements the recoding as data are read Reply.
Rick Wicklin on July 21, pm. Rick Wicklin on August 1, pm. Great tips. Thanks for writing and sharing.
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Nov 27, · Step-2 Use library option in PROC format and provide a library name with the format file name. The file name must be a valid SAS dataset name. Syntax: – PROC FORMAT LIBRARY=Library_niceloveme.comNAME; Proc Format library=niceloveme.com_Fmt; Value $Genderfmt ‘M’=’Male’ ‘F’ =’Female’; Run;. Jun 10, · There is an alternative approach: You can use PROC FORMAT in Base SAS to define a custom SAS format. When you use PROC FORMAT, the data are never changed, but all the SAS reports and analyses can display the formatted values instead of the raw data values. You can use the same format for multiple data sets. 1 Apply the format as a *f= crossing of the statistical keyword (N in your case). Because cells are intersections (crossings) of categorical values existing in the data you will not see a zero in colpctn unless you use the classdata= which predetermines which crossings should be in the output.
I have spent a significant part of my career as a data visualization guy. I am very particular about the formatting and presentation of reports. So, when I started using SAS, I faced a few challenges in changing formats of numbers and characters, especially when dates were involved. Not so surprisingly, both Kunal and I receive a fair number of queries on this topic. In SAS, there are various options to enhance the reporting layouts.
In this article, we will particularly discuss about methods to play with format of data values. It should be noted that these changes are only applied while displaying the results. Changing format of output does not change the way, the data gets stored at the back end. By default, SAS provides various built in formats to deal with various formats, but they are not sufficient to meet custom requirements your data might have.
Another common example is to display area codes in 10 digit telephone numbers e. This is a long article compared to what I usually write, so feel free to digest this in bits and pieces.
Next, we look at various applications and examples of these concepts. Below is a sample data containing agent performance details. We will use this dataset in examples and discussion in this article. List of predefined date formats available to change the output format of variables:. Till now we have seen, how to change the format of numbers and Dates with in built SAS formats.
But there can be many occasions when SAS built-in formats do not suffice our needs. Like in current dataset, we want to:. Whereas, if we only want to only change the display and not the values in the data set , then creating user defined format using PROC FORMAT is a more efficient way to make these changes.
In a similar way, we can solve it for the problem 2. Above, I have used ranges to define the format. They can be used for both — character and numeric values. Others also include missing values if it is not specified. Before using this option we first look at the guidelines below Now look at the statements below.
This is the best method when we want to merge one variable from another data set, but if we want to add five or multiple variables, then we have to repeat the PROC FORMAT statement that many times along with the multiple PUT function in data step.
All SAS formats are stored in a catalog collection of formats. When we create a Format, it gets stored in the catalog. Like other datasets of WORK library, they also get deleted at the end of the session.
Now to save User defined formats, we need to specify where to store the catalog and what to call it. This can be achieved by storing formats in a library other than WORK. The file name must be a valid SAS dataset name. Now, whenever we want to use stored format, we have to tell SAS to look for formats in that catalog file. This is done with the fmtsearch option. So before using it, we need to write a statement. SAS picture format creates templates in which we define how the numbers are displayed.
In this article, we looked at various methods to display format of data values using built in and user defined formats.
We have also looked at various techniques to define formats like ranges, picture, handle missing values and unmatched values using OTHER.
This should be all what you need to be a pro with SAS Formats. We have not covered In-format while reading non-standard dataset. We will discuss that in one of our future post. Hope you found this article useful? We have simplified this topic and have tried to present it in a very simple and lucid manner. If you need any more help with SAS formatting, please feel free to ask your questions through comments below. The one thing I miss in this article is the inclusion of an example of how to use functions in formats built in Proc FCMP.
SAS Business Analyst. Article Video Book. Special keywords used to define the ranges are:- a Ranges can be multiple values separated by commas. We can save user defined SAS format for future use. How to Use stored Format Now, whenever we want to use stored format, we have to tell SAS to look for formats in that catalog file.
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